In the previous articles in this series we looked at the world’s vineyard surface area and world wine production in 2020. Now, let’s take a look at how wine producing countries perform in terms of productivity, in other words, how much wine they manage to produce in relation to their planted vineyard acreage. Another way to look at this is to say “what is the average yield in a country?”
The series on the wine industry in 2020:
This is our own back-of-the-envelope calculation based on the figures from the OIV (International Organisation of Vine and Wine). There are many factors influencing these numbers, and doing rough estimates like we do here will only give you a very approximate picture. But it’s still an interesting view.
The two items, productivity and yield, are more or less the same measure but the different wordings shine different lights on the issue. High productivity would normally be considered good, but high yields are often considered bad (in conventional wine wisdom), but the two can be seen as the same thing.
A further complication is the definition.
“Yield” is quite unambiguous. It is usually expressed as hectolitres per hectare (in some cases expressed in other units: quintales per hectare, tonnes per acre etc).
“Productivity” on the other hand can be interpreted in different way. The OECD says “Productivity is commonly defined as a ratio between the output volume and the volume of inputs” and with hectares as the volume of input this is then yield. There are alternative definitions but I will limit myself to the yield definition.
Average vineyard yields 2020, high yield countries to low yield countries, chart: BKWine, data: OIV
Average vineyard yields 2020, biggest volume producer to smallest country, chart: BKWine, data: OIV
The dotted red line in the charts indicate the world average of 47 hl/ha.
# – indicates estimate by OIV
$ – indicates that “vineyards for other use than wine” have been extracted from the acreage based on BKWine estimate (See the article on vineyard surface area.)
The above charts are thus a very rough estimate of average yields (or productivity) in most of the main wine producing countries. For China and for World, I have used the estimate of its wine producing vineyard acreage that I did in the section in vineyard acreage. Keep in mind that also for some of the other countries a portion of the grapes may be used for other products than wine. But I don’t think the numbers are very far off.
Please note that this only includes the bigger countries, the top 19 in production volume.
Some comments and conclusions that to a large extend are simple hypothesis and that would need further research to be verified:
High yielding countries:
- 85 hl/ha, at the top, with yields at 80% above world average.
- A bit of a surprise. When you travel in South Africa you don’t get this …….